Objectives: The current study investigated the antioxidant and antiurolithiatic potential of A. millefolium along with its metabolic characterization. Methods: A. millefolium has been collected at vegetative (V) and mature (Inflorescence (I) and Stem and Leaves (S+L)) stages and extracted in ethanol. Antioxidant potential has been determined by total phenolic content, total flavonoid content, ferric reducing antioxidant potential, total antioxidants through phosphomolybdate assay and free radical scavenging assays (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2’-azinobis( 3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid). In vitro antiurolithiatic activity is determined by turbidity changes in artificial urine, nucleation assay, and aggregation assay. Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry has been used to characterize the active metabolites of plant A. millefolium. Results: Maximum antioxidant activity was observed in Inflorescence with values 76.58 mg of GAE/g of extract, 18.82 mg of RE/g of extract, 199.799 mg of AAE/g of extract and 327.95 mg of AAE/g of extract for TPC, TFC, FRAP and total antioxidants through phosphomolybdate assay respectively. Maximum radical scavenging activity was also observed in inflorescence with 86.3% and 69.655 % inhibition against DPPH and ABTS free radicals at 1000μg/ml concentration respectively. Maximum in vitro antiurolithiatic potential of plant A. millefolium observed in inflorescence i.e. 80 %, 41.84% and 63.41 % inhibition at 1000μg/ml concentration for turbidity changes in artificial urine method, nucleation assay and aggregation assay respectively. FT- IR and GCMS of inflorescence of A. millefolium confirmed the presence of major functional groups and active metabolic compounds respectively. Conclusion: Inflorescence of plant A. millefolium is an excellent source of natural antioxidants with significant antiurolithiatic potential.
Key words: Achillea millefolium L., Antioxidant activity, Antiurolithiatic activity, Inflorescence, Active metabolites.