Bisphosphonate (BF) is a drug used to treat some bone pathologies, such as osteoporosis, multiple myeloma, Paget’s disease, and to treat bone metastasis. These drugs increase the risk of osteonecrosis, where several factors are considered to be risk factors for this, including surgery for placing dental implants and tooth extraction. The objective of this present study was to conduct a literature review on the emergence of osteonecrosis in patients who are or have used BFand have undergone dental implant surgery. A literature review was carried out using the PUBMED, LILACS, Bireme and Scielo databases. To carry out this research, 24 articles were selected between the years 2008 and 2020, which were related to the topic of the use of BF in dental implantology. There is no clear relationship between BF and osseointegration of dental implants. Studies show that BFs increase the mechanical stability of implants if used locally, but they can also increase the risk of osteonecrosis of the jaw if used systemically. BFs have different effects at bone repair sites and bone remodeling sites. It is known that bone can be formed at the site of repair, but this drug will decrease bone formation to a similar level of bone resorption at the site of remodeling. Despite the risk, implant surgery is not contraindicated in patients undergoing oral treatment. The rate of osteonecrosis related to the use of BF is low, even so the professional must consider the risk and be cautious to prevent this from happening.
Key words: Osseointegration, Dental implants, Bisphosphonates, Osteonecrosis.