Background: Different studies across the world have shown there is an association between non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and accelerated decline of cognitive function leading to mild cognitive impairment. The aim of the study was to estimate and study the prevalence of Cognitive impairment and its risk factor in patients having only DM or only HTN or a combination of both. Methods: An observational, prospective Crosssectional Study was conducted in tertiary care hospital which includes patients’ ≥45 years of age clinically diagnosed with hypertension, diabetes mellitus or both. A proforma, Mini Mental Status Examination (MMSE) and Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS) was used to assess risk factors of cognitive impairment. Results: Near around one-fourth (24%) of subjects had cognitive impairment based on MMSE score. MMSE score was lowest amongst patient with hypertension(HTN) (21.61±5.21), followed by both (23.91±4.81) and then diabetes mellitus(DM) (24.93±2.86). Subjects having HTN and was cognitive impaired (50%) had low medication adherence followed by DM (22.72%) and both (22.72%). Cognitive Impairment was significantly higher amongst subject who was less physically active, those who were living alone and socio-economic status also had influence on cognitive impairment based on chi-square test. Conclusion: Elder population with non-communicable diseases have higher prevalence of cognitive impairment. Healthcare professionals should provide a proper counselling to their family members especially related to medication adherence and preventive measure to minimize the risk of developing dementia.
Keywords: Mild Cognitive impairment, Hypertension, Diabetes mellitus, Non-communicable diseases, Medication adherence, Risk factor.