Background: Sida rhombifolia L. is a well documented Ayurvedic medicine for the management of neurodegenerative diseases and to enhance cognitive function. Researchers demonstrated its activities under various animal model/s, but lack the probable molecular mechanism in the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease. Current study was aimed to identify the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory potency of phytocompounds and enriched fractions from S.rhombifolia using in vitro and network pharmacology approaches. Methods: Phytocompounds were retrieved from phytochemical databases, scientific reports and quired for druggability. Protein targets were predicted using BindingDB (p≥0.7). STRING database and KEGG pathway were utilized to perform gene set enrichment analysis and to identify the probable pathways modulated by the phytocompounds. Cytoscape v3.6.1 was used to construct a target-compound-pathway network. Docking was performed by PyRx 0.8v. Enriched fractions of S. rhombifolia were tested for in vitro AChE inhibitory potency using the AChE enzyme. Results: Among 35 compounds, 26 compounds showed positive drug likeness property. Out of 26 compounds, 9 compounds i.e. 2D-hydroxyecdysone, ecdysone, pterosterone-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, acacetin, kaempferol, sanguinine, vascicine, vasicinol, vasicinone were predicted to target AChE and other 9 therapeutic targets involved in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Acacetin scored lowest binding energy with AChE (-8.9kcal/mol). Among the selected enriched fractions, hexane fraction pertains highest AChE inhibition (IC50 12.87μg/ml) compared to clinical approved drug Donepezil (IC50 2.92μg/ml). Conclusion: The role of S.rhombifolia for the management of AD could be attributed due to the major effect of 2D-hydroxyecdysone, ecdysone, pterosterone-3-O-β-Dglucopyranoside, acacetin, kaempferol, sanguinine, vascicine, vasicinol, vasicinone on AChEand their action on multiple protein molecules associated with AD pathogenesis.
Key words: Alzheimer’s disease, Acacetin, Acetylcholinesterase, In silico docking, Network pharmacology, Sida rhombifolia, Sangunine.