Role of Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter-2 Inhibitors in Readmissions for Congestive Heart Failure

    Published on:September 2021
    Journal of Young Pharmacists, 2021; 13(3):257-261
    Original Article | doi:10.5530/jyp.2021.13.52
    Authors:

    Joseph Keryakos*, Robert Kranz, Rachel Propst, Jena Rathert, Kelli Semerad

    Department of Pharmacy Practice, South Dakota State University College of Pharmacy and Allied Health Professions, Brookings, South Dakota, USA.

    Abstract:

    Background: Patients with type II diabetes are at major risk for cardiovascular disease. Sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT-2 inhibitors) have demonstrated benefit for these patients. The purpose of this study is to determine whether SGLT-2 inhibitors significantly reduce heart failure readmission rates and improve outcomes in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF). Methods: Patient data was pulled on CHF patients with an active prescription for an SGLT-2 inhibitor, and it was analyzed using Fischer’s Exact tests and two-tailed t-tests. The primary outcome was a 6-month hospital readmission rate due to CHF while taking SGLT-2 inhibitors. Secondary outcomes included 6-month all-cause hospital readmissions, renal function as measured by an estimated glomerular filtration rate change between admissions, mortality rates, and ejection fraction. Results: Of the 138 patients that met inclusion criteria for the first admission, the 6-month all-cause readmission rate for CHF patients still taking SGLT-2 inhibitors at readmission was 21 percent vs 16 percent (p=0.6) for the control group not taking SGLT-2 inhibitors. The 6-month CHF readmission rate in patients taking SGLT-2 inhibitors was 7.2 percent, and a CHF specific readmission rate was not collected for the control group. In patients with an eGFR less than 90, the average eGFR for the SGLT-2 group declined slightly but was not significant between patients at first admission and those with readmission (p=0.21). Conclusion: The use of SGLT-2 inhibitors in patients with CHF did not change the overall hospital readmission rate; however, larger randomized controlled trials are needed for further evaluation of the potential benefit.

    Key words: Cardiovascular Outcomes, Chronic Heart Failure, Heart Failure Hospitalization, SGLT2 Inhibition, Type II Diabetes.

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