Fluoroquinolones: Utilisation and Compliance with WHO Defined Daily Doses

    Published on:July 2021
    Journal of Young Pharmacists, 2021; 13(2):136-142
    Original Article | doi:10.5530/jyp.2021.13.28

    Mohd Alfam Shamin Ashraf Alisha1, Abdullah Khan1,*, Ching Siang Tan1, Shashidharan Menon1, Jaasminerjiit Kaur1, Anandarajagopal Kalusalingam1, Mei Jun Loy2, Mohamed Mansor Manan3, Long Chiau Ming4

    1School of Pharmacy, KPJ Healthcare University College, Nilai, MALAYSIA.

    2Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor, MALAYSIA.

    3Faculty of Pharmacy, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Puncak Alam, Selangor, MALAYSIA.

    4PAPRSB Institute of Health Sciences, Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Gadong, BRUNEI DARUSSALAM.


    Background: Fluoroquinolones are indicated for the treatment of a number of infections due to their broad-spectrum activity. Objectives: In the present study we aimed to describe the types and characteristics of fluoroquinolones prescribed, to examine the pattern of Fluoroquinolones used and to calculate and compare the Defined Daily Doses (DDD) for each Fluoroquinolones with the WHO guidelines. Methods: The full prescription record of patients prescribed with fluoroquinolones was reviewed and the data which met the inclusion and exclusion criteria were recorded. In this study, the data were recorded as the DDD per 1000 inhabitants per day. Data from the patient’s prescription record and demographic profile were assessed using descriptive statistics. Results and Discussion: Out of 200 screened patients’ prescription, 51% were males. Patient in the age group of >60 years old was 30.5%; followed by age group 40-49 years, 18.5%. Ciprofloxacin 250mg (Ciprobay 250mg) was the most widely prescribed fluoroquinolone, accounting for 31 % of the prescriptions. This was followed by levofloxacin 500mg (Cravit 500mg) 25% and moxifloxacin 400mg (Avelox 400mg) 18.5%. Ofloxacin (Tarivid 100mg) was only 4%. In term of calculation based on DDD, the four most utilized fluoroquinolones were levofloxacin 500mg (0.049 DID) followed by moxifloxacin (0.03 DID), Ciprofloxacin 500mg (0.028 DID), and ciprofloxacin 250mg (0.024 DID). The least utilized antibiotic was ofloxacin 100mg (0.0069 DID). The total fluoroquinolones antibiotics used for the outpatient department in the hospital were 0.1409 DID. Conclusion: The accessed data revealed that the DDD, for all the Fluoroquinolones utilized at this hospital complied with the recommended WHO DDD.

    Key words: Pharmacoepidemiology, Antimicrobial, Ciprofloxacin, Levofloxacin, Prescribing pattern, DDD.

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