Nanocellulose polymers have played a vital role in biomedical applications and the medical field as a whole and made possible with 3D bio-ink printing. This achievement has made it easy for skin grafting, organ transplants and cancer screening and treatment. The many available thermoplastics are being replaced with cellulose from wood, pulp and plants, some of the cellulose polymers covered in this paper are Nanocellulose (CNF), nanofibers (CNC), Bacterial cellulose and many more cellulose polymers as discussed in the preceding chapters. This review also details advancements in modifications that have been done in cellulose polymers to make them more and more effective in the medical field that each day is facing challenges. The introduction section, chapter one, brings out the core issues of the paper introducing bio-ink which is further discussed in detail in chapters two and three, information on cellulose, its sources and polymer can be obtained from both chapters one and two. The aims and objectives of this writing are to review the journey that 3D bio-ink printing of cellulose Polymers, particularly Nano polymers of CNC and CNF, have taken since their inception in Sweden. This paper blends with previous information and current findings, uses and discoveries on the 3D bio-ink printing of nanocellulose. It also endeavors to ascertain how 3D printing has influenced the application of 4D bioprinting in its advanced stages.
Key words: Nanocellulose, CNC, CNF, 3D bio-ink printing, Nanocrystals, Nanofibers.