Nanoparticle drug delivery can produce a unique pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic effect and unveiled better safety in vivo and in vitro toxicity profiles when compared with conventional drugs. In 1960, Vroman revealed that competitive protein exchange is a general phenomenon that occurs when a protein mixture adsorbs to a surface is called ‘Vroman’s effect’ which is responsible for the fate of the nanoparticles. The development and formation of protein corona on nanoparticles is due to the adsorption of proteins on the surface. It is vital in specific targeting and alter the size and composition of the nanoparticle. The entropy-driven binding manages this adsorption of protein on the surface. Binding of polyethylene glycol to the nanoparticles decreases the non-specific binding and increases the targeting of tissue via enhanced permeability and retention effect. An individual disease state and components in biofluids can modify the structure and shape of protein corona on nanoparticles. By label-free transducers, we can detect targets using Vroman’s effect. The biological identification of nanoparticles can lead to deleterious consequences, such as immunotoxicity, due to the formation of the protein corona.
Keywords: Vromans effect, Nanoparticles, Protein corona, Disease state, Biofluids.