Objective: Mahkota dewa fruits (Phaleria marcocarpha (Scheff.) Boerl) have been found to contain benzophenone and xanthone derivatives which have a protective effect against ultraviolet light. This study was aimed to evaluate the sunscreen activities of mahkoside A, mangiferin and 6, 4-dihydroxy- 4-methoxybenzophenone-2-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (6, 4-DHMP) isolated from Mahkota dewa fruits in-vitro and in-vivo. Methods: In-vitro sunscreen activity was evaluated using spectrophotometric method by measuring percentage transmission of erythema, percentage transmission of pigmentation and sun protection factor (SPF). The sunscreen activity assays in-vivo was conducted by observing the effect of erythema in rats after exposed to an exotera lamp for 24 h. Results: In-vitro assays showed that mahkoside A, mangiferin and 6, 4-dihydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone-2-O-β-Dglucopyranoside at a concentration of 100 ppm had SPF value of 3.44, 2.82 and 3.08 respectively. In-vivo test results showed that mangiferin at concentrations of 12.5%, 25%, and 50% decreased the amount of erythema and erythema diameter significantly different than negative control (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Mahkoside A, mangiferin and 6, 4-DHMP possessed sunscreen activity in-vitro and in-vivo.
Key words: Mahkoside A, Mangiferin, 6, 4-dihydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone- 2-O-β-d-glucopyranoside, Phaleria marcocarpha, SPF, Erythema.