Impact of Hypothyroidism on Metabolic and Cognitive Dysfunction: A Comprehensive Review

    Published on:September 2022
    Journal of Young Pharmacists, 2022; 14(4):xx-xx
    Review Article | doi:

    Bipin Shaji, Juno J Joel*

    Department of Pharmacy Practice, Nitte (Deemed to be University), NGSM Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences (NGSMIPS), Mangalore, Karnataka, INDIA.


    Hypothyroidism is a chronic condition with an underactive thyroid gland. The thyroid gland produces thyroid hormones mainly, thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). Women are more at risk of hypothyroidism than men. The symptoms of hypothyroidism are not specific. A blood test to measure thyroid hormones should be needed for the diagnosis of hypothyroidism. The mild cognitive symptoms associated with hypothyroidism are difficult to detect in the early stages in adults. But in elderly patients, it can be easily detected. Memory is the most common cognitive domain affected in elderly hypothyroid patients. In elderly patients, the hypothyroidimpaired cognitive impairment can progress into dementia or other related complications if left untreated. Thyroid hormones have an important role in regulating metabolism. Metabolic disorders were common in hypothyroidism. Thyroid hormone supplementation with levothyroxine is the standard therapy for hypothyroidism. Levothyroxine should be taken on an empty stomach preferably in the early morning. Levothyroxine has several drug interactions. It can interact with proton pump inhibitors, calcium supplements, etc., and reduce levothyroxine’s oral absorption. Patients’ attitudes and knowledge toward the therapy have an important role in improving their clinical outcomes and quality of life.

    Keywords: Cognitive impairment, Drug interactions, Hypothyroidism, Levothyroxine, Metabolic disorders.