Introduction: Kidney transplantation is considered the best treatment of rehabilitation for chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients, because it increases quality of life and survival when compared to other modalities of renal replacement. However, after kidney transplantation may occur clinical and surgical complications. Objectives: To evaluate the main causes of adverse events associated with renal graft and their impact on cost after kidney transplantation in the public system in Brazil. Methodology: Follow-up, descriptive, retrospective, exploratory, cause and effect study with economic evaluation. We used data from the Departamento de Informática do Sistema Único de Saúde (DATASUS). We identified patients with register of kidney transplant in the states of northern and northeastern Brazil in 2013 and had adverse event associated with renal graft. These patients were followed up through the registers on DATASUS, specifically using the Sistema de Informação Hospitalar SIH/SUS from 2013 to 2017. Results: A total of 183 patients with a renal graft-related adverse event during the first four years of kidney transplantation who required hospitalization for treatment. Patients up to six months after transplantation had a higher frequency of readmissions and longer hospitalization. The impact of the cost of treating these patients on the total cost of readmissions was US$ 302,952.05. Conclusion: Through the data analysis from SIH/SUS, it was possible to identify that the complications related to renal graft had significant impact of cost on the value of readmissions after kidney transplantation.
Key words: Adverse Events, Graft Rejection, Health Care Costs, Health Expenditures, Kidney Transplantation.