Objective: The aim of the present study was to screen the anticancer activity of Atractylis flava Desf in butanolic extract (AFBE). In addition, we attempted to investigate the gene expression levels of seven relevant genes involved in the pathways leading to toxicity: oxidative stress (NCF1, OPA1, SDHA), inflammation (TNFα), apoptotic balance (PDCD4, BCL2, CASP8) and the measurement of caspase-3 activity on the acute monocytic leukemia cell line THP-1. Material and Methods: The cell viability was assessed using Trypan blue exclusion, alamarBlue® and WST-1 assays. The gene expression levels were tested by RT-qPCR. Activity of caspase-3 activity was performed using the EnzChek® Caspase-3 Assay kit to confirm the induction of apoptosis on tumor cells. Results: We observed significant growth inhibitory activity of the AFBE extract on the acute monocytic leukemia cell line THP-1. Moreover, the gene expression analysis showed that the plant extract caused statistically significant downregulation of selected genes compared to the untreated cells. Caspase-3 activity in the treated cells was significantly elevated. Conclusion: The presents study states that the butanolic extract of Atractylis flava Desf showed a significant cytotoxic effect against THP-1 cells. Our results suggest that the AFBE may be beneficial for the treatment and prevention of cancer.
Key words: Atractylis flava Desf, Gene expression, RT-qPCR, Apoptosis, THP-1.