Introduction: Microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) is an excipient used in food, cosmetics and pharmaceutical industries especially in the manufacture of tablet. Dendrocalamus asper (betung bamboo) contains high cellulose content at approximately 44.94% and it has potential as raw material of microcrystalline cellulose. Objective: The purpose of this study was to obtain microcrystalline cellulose powder from betung bamboo and it’s physicochemical properties. Methods: The steps to produce microcrystalline cellulose were extraction with n-Hexane: Ethanol (2:1), isolation of alpha cellulose, and acid hydrolysis of alpha cellulose to MCC. The purity of microcrystalline cellulose obtained was identified by infrared spectrophotometry and melting point determination. Other characteristics such as x-ray diffraction, particle size distribution, pH, ash content, moisture content, loss on drying, flow rate, density, scanning electron microscope, and angle of repose were also determined and compared to Avicel PH 101. Results: The Infra-red spectrum obtained were similar to reference Avicel PH 101. The powder was moderately fine, odorless, tasteless and less white compared to reference, particle size distribution 1117.4 nm, pH 6.88, ash contents ± 0.0584%, moisture content 36%, loss on drying 4.59%. Density, flow rate and angle of repose fulfilled the requirements based on the literature. Conclusion: There is a similarity characteristic of MCC obtained and reference. So, there is a possibility for its use as excipient in the future by doing the application studies in food and pharmacy.
Key words: Acid hydrolysis, Bamboo betung, Cellulose, Characterization, Microcrystalline cellulose.