Objective: The aim of the study was to see the effect of ethanolic extract of Solanum nigrum Linn on Acute and Sub-acute inflammation. Method: Wistar rats weighing 150-200gms were used, divided into four groups Group 1 was control group, two groups Group 2 and 3 treated with the plant extracts at 100 & 200 mg/kg b.w and Group 4 treated with indomethacin, 10 mg/kg b.w. Acute inflammation was induced by injecting 0.1 mL of 1% homogenized carrageenan suspension in normal saline to the right hind paw of the rats prior to which drug treatment was given and paw volume was measured using a digital plethysmometer. Sub-acute anti-inflammatory studies were carried out as described by winter and Porter and hematological parameters were estimated. The granuloma tissue formed during the proliferative process was isolated and wet and dry exudates formation was estimated in various treatment groups. The effect of extract and indomethacin on vital organs like liver, kidney, stomach was also studied by performing histological studies. Results: Study shows that the hydroalcoholic extract of whole plant of Solanum nigrum L. is effective only at higher dose effectively suppressing carrageenan induced inflammation suggesting the inhibition of release of prostaglandin, bradykinin, leukotrienes and polymorphonuclear cells. The histological studies further confirm the anti-inflammatory property of the extract while simultaneously maintaining normal cellular architecture of vital organs than as compared to indomethacin treated group. Conclusion: The ethanolic extract of whole plant of Solanum nigrum Linn shows promising anti-inflammatory activity on both acute and sub-acute stages of inflammation.
Key words: Acute Inflammation, Sub-acute Inflammation, Anti-inflammatory activity, Solanum nigrum , Hematological parameters, Histological studies.